# K-2+ Assessments

The nine assessments are:

Critical Learning Phases

3. MORE/LESS TRAINS

Instructional Goals

Children Need to Learn:

# *To compare two groups and determine which is more and which is less

*To compare two groups in a variety of settings and determine how many more or less one number is than the other

Critical Learning Phases

Compare Two Groups: Lined Up

# *Uses what is known about one number to determine another when the groups are lined up

*Compares two groups that are lined up and determines when is more, and which is less

*When the groups are lined up, tells how many more or less, when the difference is 1 or 2

*When the groups are lined up, tells how many more or less, when the difference is more than 2

Compares Two Groups: Not Lined Up

# *Compares two groups that are not lined up and tells which is more, and which is less

*When the groups are not lined up, tells how many more or less, when the difference is 1 or 2

*When the groups are not lines up, tells how many more or less, when the difference is more than 2

Using Symbols

# *Uses the greater than (>) and less than (<) symbols as a shortcut for the commonly used words (is more than, is less than) when comparing objects

6. HIDING ASSESSMENT

Instructional Goals

Children Need to Learn:

# *The parts of numbers to 10

*To use what they know about the parts of numbers to solve subtraction problems

Critical Learning Phases

# *Identifies missing parts of numbers to 10 by using related combinations including:

--Using number combinations to solve subtraction (Ex: 5 + 3 = 8, so 8 - 5 = 3)

--Knowing taking away 1 part leaves the other part (Ex: 6 - 4 = 2, so 6 - 2 = 4)

*Knows missing parts of numbers to 10

1. COUNTING OBJECTS

Instructional Goals

Children Need to Learn:

# *To use numbers to answer the question, "how many?"

*To count objects with consistency, accuracy and confidence

*To know one more and one less than a number

*To interpret and write numerals to label quantities

Critical Learning Phases

Counting Objects:

# *Counts one item for each number (one-to-one)

*Keeps track of an unorganized pile

*Spontaneously checks by recounting to see if the result is the same

*Knows "how many" after counting

*Notices when recounting a group results in a different number

*Is bothered when counting a group results in the same number after some have been added or taken away

*Reacts to estimate while counting

*Gets a particular number without counting past it

One More/One Less:

# *Knows "one more" in sequence without counting

*Knows "one less" in sequence without counting

*Notices if a counting pattern doesn't make sense

(Ex: saying 20, 30, 40 instead of 21, 22, 23, or 13, 14, 15 instead of 13, 12, 11)

*Knows one more without counting when numbers are presented out of sequence

*Knows one less without counting when numbers are presented out of sequence

2. CHANGING NUMBERS

Instructional Goals

Children Need to Learn:

# *To change one quantity into another

*That a smaller number is contained within a larger number

*To count starting from a known amount (counting on)

*To describe how one number is related to another number

Changing One Number to Another:

# *Changes a number to a larger number by counting on, or adding on a group

*Changes a number to a smaller number by counting back, or removing a group

Describing the Relationship between the Numbers:

# *After changing one number to another, is aware of how many were added or taken away

*Knows how many to add or take away from a number to make another number

4. NUMBER ARRANGEMENTS

Instructional Goals

Children Need to Learn:

# *To recognize the parts of numbers

*To combine parts of numbers without counting all

Critical Learning Phases

# *Recognizes groups of numbers to 5 in a variety of configurations

*Recognizes and describes parts contained in larger numbers

*Describes parts of numbers; counts on to determine total

*Combines parts by using related combinations including:

--Knowledge of commutative property (6 + 3 = 3 + 6)

--Rearranging parts to create known combinations (ex: adding 6 + 4 by moving 1 from the 6 to the 4, making 5 + 5)

*Knows totals when combining parts

8. GROUPING TENS

Instructional Goals

Children Need to Learn:

# *That numbers to 100 are organized into groups of tens and ones

*To add tens without counting

*To take away tens without counting

*To interpret symbols for 2-digit numbers

Critical Learning Phases

# *Counts groups of ten

*Knows total instantly when the number of tens and ones is known

*Knows the number of tens that can be made from any group of ones and the number of ones left over

*Knows the number of tens in any two-digit number

*Knows ten more for any two-digit number

*Knows ten less for any two-digit number

9. TWO-DIGIT ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION

Instructional Goals

Children Need to Learn:

# *To use what they know about single-digit numbers to add and subtract two-digit numbers

*To add and subtract two-digit numbers using knowledge of tens and one

*To describe how they solve problems

Critical Learning Phases

Adding Numbers to 100

# *Adds 2 numbers up to 100 by reorganizing them into tens and left over ones

Subtracting Numbers to 100

# *Subtracts from numbers to 100 by breaking apart tens when necessary, and reorganizing what is left into the remaining tens and leftovers

5. COMBINATION TRAINS

Instructional Goals

Children Need to Learn:

# *To use known combinations to figure out unknown combinations

*To describe how they solve problems

*To know the parts of numbers to 10

*To use efficient strategies to solve problems to 20

*To write equations

Critical Learning Phases

# *Combines parts by using related combinations including doubles plus or minus 1

*Knows totals when combining parts

7. TEN FRAMES

Instructional Goals

Children Need to Learn:

# *To combine single-digit numbers by reorganizing them into a ten and leftover ones

*To use their knowledge of the parts of numbers to 10 to subtract from numbers up to 20

Critical Learning Phases

Understanding Ten as a Unit

# *Counts ten as a single unit

Understanding the Structure of One Ten and Some Ones

# *Combines 1 ten with any number of ones up to 9 without counting

*Decomposes numbers from 10 to 19 into 1 ten and some ones

Adding Numbers to 20

# *Adds 10 to any number of ones to 9, without counting

Subtracting Numbers to 20